Palermo: a constant surprise
Palermo is the capital of Sicily which is the largest island in the Mediterranean sea and sits at the bottom of Italy in close proximity to Tunisia and Malta. With a population of 676.000 and a greater metropolitan population of 1.3 million, it serves as the islands cultural and economical centre. Cave drawings have been found in Palermo and human settlements have been dated as early as 8000 BC. Initially under Roman Control, once the empire started to collapse, Palermo came under Germanic control and then subsequently Arabic rule and finally Christian conquers in the 1000’s.
Today, Palermo is a thriving city that has seen huge development since the 1980’s and its economy centres around tourism and services. As a tourist destination, Palermo offers a huge range of historical attractions, ancient buildings, and dramatic coastlines to explore. Lets explore the best things to do in Palermo:
1. Palermo Cathedral
Due to the various conquering nations and empires that have had a presence in Palermo, this cathedral has a myriad of different styles and is a truly fascinating building. Originally constructed in 1185 on the instruction of Pope Gregory I, the church has seen many uses including a mosque and a crypt. The Moorish influence is present on the exterior and it features a fine central basilica and a tall renaissance clock tower. Furthermore the portico side entrance features several ornate columns and a triangular pediment with a detailed fresco. Inside, a prominent feature is the treasure chamber that holds various artefacts from different time periods of the church, and also the tomb of Emperor Frederick II.
2. Cappella Palatina
The Palatine Chapel is located in close proximity to the Pallazzo dei Normanni in the centre of Palermo and is one of the best preserved examples of Byzantine architecture and artwork in Europe. As part of the palace, it was built in 1132 and commissioned by Roger II of Sicily. Dedicated to Saint Peter, the chapel has a central basilica and features a plethora of fantastic Byzantine artwork and architecture. Covered in stunning mosaics that exhibit a fantastic amount of detail and colour, the walls and ceiling are packed full of religious and historical iconography. Every angle or corner you turn you will find another piece of detail or interesting depiction, this really is a true feat of ingenuity and artistic creation.
3. Palazzo dei Normanni
The Royal Palace or the Palace of the Normans served as the main seat of the Kings of Sicily. It stands as one of the oldest royal palaces in Europe and was originally created in the 9th century by the Emir of Palermo. The Norman and Moorish influence is undeniable and the palace exudes an official and stately feel. A main feature of the exterior is the central courtyard that features some beautiful stone arches and decoration. Furthermore, the Capella Palatina is a connecting building that has some beautiful mosaics and artwork dating back hundreds of years. Ensure you visit this royal residence for a true slice of Sicilian history.
4. La Martorana
Palermo is packed full of ancient and beautiful religious buildings and the Martorana (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Admiral) is a truly delightful example. As with Palermo Cathedral, La Martorana also features an amalgamation of various architectural styles due to years of conquest. Located in the Piazza Bellini, the church is next to the famous Pretoria Fountain and Quattro Canti square. Inside this fabulous building, the design and artwork is again sublime. The main dome features a golden mosaic of Christ and the ceilings and arches are full of frescos and colourful depictions. It truly is a fantastic building to behold and the ornate workings will leave you in disbelief.
5. Capuchin Abbey and Catacombs
The order of Capuchin Friars dates back to the 1500’s and this abbey was dedicated to their usage. Whilst the abbey itself is not a fantastic building, the catacombs are the true marvel and are not like any other attraction in Europe. Here you will travel underground into the vast catacombs and see a macabre variety of burials and well preserved bodies from various periods in time. The Capuchin Monks would preserve the bodies and keep them in their original garments and also use embalming techniques. Tours are now possible of the catacombs and you can see this bizarre burial ground containing over 8000 bodies.
6. San Giovanni degli Eremiti
A truly small and charming church, this building dates back to the 6th century and is remarkably well preserved despite its immense age. Domed towers sit at one end of the church and feature a brilliant red colouration that is still extremely vibrant. The architectural style is considered to be a combination of Arabic and Norman but has later Roman additions. A pleasant garden lies at the back of the church filled with exotic plant life and trees. As one of the most important Arab-Norman buildings in Palermo, the inside remains quite simple with only a few frescos and religious artwork.
7. Monte Pellegrino
Sicily is full of mountains and hilly regions and Monte Pellegrino sits next to Palermo and offers an escape to nature with unparalleled views of the city and Mediterranean. Aside from being a fantastic tourist attraction, the locals love to come here for an afternoon of fun too so expect to do some mingling. Only 9 miles from the city centre, this mountain is easily accessible and there is a regular bus service that runs to the top from Politeama. If you are particularly adventurous and fit, it is possible to hike to the top of Mount Pellegrino to, but don’t undertake this venture unless you are sure of your physical fitness and survivability!
8. Teatro Massimo
Who would have thought that a theatre would be one of the largest structures in Palermo? The Teattro Massimo is immense and it towers over the relatively small buildings surrounding the Piazza Giuseppe Verdi. Opened in 1897, it is the largest Opera House in Italy and is famed for its acoustic qualities. With an exterior that looks more like a palace, this building is truly opulent, but the interior is just as lavish. Guided tours are available daily of the interior of this fantastic building including tours of the actual auditorium and its boxes. For film buffs, this theatre is also the place that the final scenes of the Third Godfather movie were filmed!
9. Fontana Pretoria
A monumental fountain that lies in the centre of the Piazza Pretoria, the Fontana Pretoria was built by a Florentine architect in 1554 and transferred to Palermo in 1574. Depicted on the fountain are marble statues of the twelve Olympians from ancient Greek Mythology including Zeus, Poseidon, Apollo and Ares. Each statue is highly decorated and sculpted and frames the centrepiece perfectly. Aside from the mighty Olympians, the other statues represent the animals and rivers of Palermo.
10. Quattro Canti
A simple yet effective and beautiful attraction, the Quattro Canti is an open square located in the centre of Palermo. Constructed in 1608, the square provides a crossroads for Via Maqueda and VIa Vittorio Emannuel but it is the architecture that makes it famous. At each corner of the square lies a semi circular face that contains marble columns, inscriptions and statues of important Italian citizens and rulers. Their symmetry and design are fantastic and you feel as if you have stepped into Florence or Renaissance Italy.